By John L. Esposito
Islamophobia has been at the upward push seeing that September eleven, as obvious in numerous instances of discrimination, racism, hate speeches, actual assaults, and anti-Muslim campaigns. The 2006 Danish sketch quandary and the debate surrounding Pope Benedict XVI's Regensburg speech have underscored the urgency of such matters as image-making, multiculturalism, freedom of expression, appreciate for spiritual symbols, and interfaith relatives.
The 1997 Runnymede document defines Islamophobia as "dread, hatred, and hostility in the direction of Islam and Muslims perpetuated via a sequence of closed perspectives that suggest and characteristic detrimental and derogatory stereotypes and ideology to Muslims." Violating the elemental ideas of human rights civil liberties, and non secular freedom, Islamophobic acts take many alternative kinds. every now and then, mosques, Islamic facilities, and Muslim houses are attacked and desecrated. within the place of work, colleges, and housing, it takes the shape of suspicion, staring, hazing, mockery, rejection, stigmatizing and outright discrimination. In public areas, it happens as oblique discrimination, hate speech, and denial of entry to items and companies.
This choice of essays takes a multidisciplinary method of Islamophobia, bringing jointly the services and event of Muslim, American, and eu students. research is mixed with coverage strategies. participants talk about and overview strong practices already in position and supply new tools for facing discrimination, hatred, and racism.
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